During Berlin Crisis in 1961. Scene of a street in East Berlin, Germany. A man stands on the West side of Berlin, clicks photo of East Berlin. A policeman disturbs and blocks him with a mirror. People of East Berlin go with their few possessions escaping to West Berlin. Military trucks parked on East Berlin side. People wave handkerchiefs. A young man loads his luggage in a truck. People on the East Berlin side with their possessions. An east German policeman reflects with a mirror to prevent cameras from recording the escape attempts. People on the West Berlin side watch a water hose sprayed at them to deter onlookers. A man sits on a truck and clicks photos as water is sprayed on him and the truck is forced to move on. Smoke or tear gas bomb comes from East Berlin side and men throw them back. Smoke seen everywhere. The escape of Frieda Schulz is seen from her apartment building at the border, on Bernauer Strasse. She is seen hanging from a window, still held on her arm from above by an east German official, until the receiving west German crowd from below pulls on her leg hard enough to free her, and she falls into a waiting net. Another woman is seen preparing to leap from a fifth floor window. She leaps (not seen) and is caught by firemen with a waiting net. Next, her husband is seen pushing some baggage through the window with valuables, and then he is seen leaping from the window into a waiting net held by firemen on the West Berlin side. Work goes on for building the Berlin Wall. Giant bulldozer drops dirt on ground as it razes home along the border of the Berlin Wall, and as a wide ditch is built to prevent escape by vehicle. People cut hole in barbed wire and are seen escaping to the West German side. Policemen and others help them as they get through. East Berlin police arrive and stop more people from escaping. A man and two young women are seen after they successfully escape through the barbed wire to West Berlin side.
Rally of communists and youth in East Berlin. Small socialist flag on table. A boy reads during a rally. Historical view of parade by German soldiers in 1930's Berlin Germany. Russian tanks repel people on streets during anti-Communist protest of 1953. Aerial view of Brandenburg Gate area and refugees fleeing in thousands from East Berlin to West Berlin. Revitalized West Berlin, with new construction. A building in construction and another new building seen. Modern stores with show windows displaying abundant goods including cameras and foods. People at a a busy food or deli counter and in sidewalk cafes and restaurants. Busy streets of West Berlin with early 1960s automobiles. Enduring flame monument in West Berlin Inscription on the pedestal reads 'Freiheit Recht Freide' meaning Freedom, Rights, Peace. At a conference with allies including Britain in 1960 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev walks down steps and gets into car. British Prime Minister Harold MacMillan with others walks down steps. Animated Khrushchev addresses gathering in Russian, forcefully and defiantly. MacMillan responds encouraging peaceful negotiations and no force. Newly elected Mayor Willy Brandt of West Berlin addresses people. United States President John F Kennedy with Premier Khrushchev, Secretary of State Dean Rusk and others at meeting in Vienna Austria. British flag at Headquarters of Berlin British Sector. Military police jeep stops near a sign. Soldier looks through binoculars at East West border of Berlin before Berlin Wall was substantial. During free elections in West Berlin people put their vote in ballot box. Box opened and counting of votes progresses. People see results on board. Nearly empty streets of East Berlin. Destroyed buildings of East Berlin still not repaired after World War II. The Spittelmarkt area, formerly a busy shopping market, now deserted and desolate. Mayor Brandt meets refugees and speaks over the microphone.
Opening scene shows the Schoeneberg Rathaus (West Berlin City Hall) where Willy Brandt, Mayor of Berlin, is addressing a large crowd of West Berliners, concerned about the building of the Berlin Wall, by the Soviets. Many carry placards and signs, including some in English,reading: "We trust Kennedy,'Pay any price, Bear any burden, for survival of Liberty;'" and "Millions behind the Iron Curtain ask for help." Scene shifts to a limousine driving into the center of a crowd. Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson steps from the car, accompanied by U.S.General Lucius D. Clay, who is seen next, with arm raised, acknowledging the crowd, while standing with Johnson and Brandt, at a podium cluttered with microphones. (Narrator refers to him as "Father of the Airlift.") The next day, British and American soldiers are seen driving in jeeps and trucks and M59 Armored Personnel Carriers, through cheering crowds, as they arrive to reinforce their Berlin garrisons. Closeup of cheering Berliners, waving hankerchiefs. Change of scene shows animated map of Europe illustrating the Westward encroachment of Soviet occupation through World War II and the postwar era, concluding with East Berlin, in 1962. The threat to other Nations and regions is also illustrated. Next, legislators are seen in session in The plenary chamber of the German Bundestag in Bonn. Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer, Chancellor of Germany, is addressing the assembly. He states that Germany does not stand alone in the world. In France, Prime Minister Georges Pompidou addresses the National Assembly, regarding the Berlin Wall. In London, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, addresses Parliament. In the United States, on September 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy, is addressing the UN General Assembly, in New York, about the dangerous crisis in Berlin. Scenes of of the Berlin wall and Checkpoint Charlie . Memorials to persons killed attempting to escape East Berlin, are seen along the wall.
A picture of Bernt Leuton, a resident of East Berlin East Germany, who fled to West Berlin West Germany. Border guards at the Communist side of Berlin in East Germany. View of Leuton on August 13, 1961 after being shot by an East German guard, after successfully swimming across the connecting canal. He is hauled out by West German guards. A map of the world. Narrator begins to trace history of Bernt Leuton's shooting by recounting prior events in history of Russia and Soviet Union. View of the Winter Palace of Czar Nicholas II, with the Czar and Czarina Alexandra standing on a balcony. Saint Petersburg, Russia on January 22nd , 1905 : Peasants and workers, with their leader Russian Orthodox Priest, Father Georgi Gapon, gathered outside the palace to deliver a petition to Czar Nicholas II. A number of the people carry banners. A picture of Czar Nicholas II. Reenactment of Czar's armed cossack cavalry dispersing the crowd, The words 'My autocracy will remain unchanged' issued by the Czar to which Father Gapon replies that they "no longer have a Czar." Picture of Father George Gapon. Picture of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, and moving images of Lenin speaking. The Czar Nicholas II and his wife, escorted by guards, moving on a path during a ceremony. The Czar mounting a horse and the guards saluting him. A picture of the Czar's wife and hemophiliac son. Picture of Russian mystic Grigori Rasputin, whose occult powers were believed to have kept the Czar's son alive.
During 1961 in build up to Berlin Crisis: Barbed wire on border seen from West Berlin side (initial Berlin Wall). Russian soldier uses binoculars to watch an approaching jeep. Jeep stops because of barrier. Sign shows 'Achtung 500m Schutzstreifen'. Men carry a box through woods fleeing or escaping into West Germany before the border was fully closed. A man with his bicycle passing over a narrow path into West Germany, as another man passes over on foot. People in a canoe approaching a west German bank of the river or lake as they flee from east Germany. A street bus approaches and parks near an intersection with street sign for "Marienfelder Allee." Men, women, and children refugees with their suitcases on a street as they gather near a refugee processing center, before heading into West Germany. A bulldog tied. A mother feeds her baby. Young refugees on streets, refugees board bus. A map show allocation of German parts to France, United States, England and Soviet Union. Traffic on road in Berlin, with view of the bombed (from World War 2) Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church or the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche, in the background. Many German civilian pedestrians walking on streets in busy West Berlin. 1950's and 1960's cars and trucks on busy Berlin streets. People in outdoor cafe restaurant. Telefunken building is seen.
Views of the Berlin Wall under construction in 1961. West Berlin street scene, contrasted to scenes of East Berlin across the border, still showing unrepaired damage from World War II and otherwise lacking development. Views of East German border guards retrieving the body of Gunter Litfin from the River Spree, after his unsuccessful attempt to flee East Germany. A floral tribute to Ida Siekmann, on barbed wire at the border. View of forests in mists. Refugees with their belongings walking from East Germany over a bridge to West Berlin. View of Tempelhof airfield in Berlin. A C-54 transport airplane taking off. Buildings along the border of East and West Berlin with windows cemented shut along the Berlin Wall. Barbed wire at the border. Armed East German border guards across the border. Views of the Berlin wall border wall. Views of the moon, and stars. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,making a forceful point while speaking at a meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations, in New York, in October,1960. Seated beside him is Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko, Soviet Foreign Minister. U.S. President John F. Kennedy addressing the UN. U.S. Sailors helping Vietnam refugees from an open stake truck. U.S. soldiers attacking and firing machine guns in Korean War. Two U.S. warships at sea. A physician attending a patient. U.S. representative providing advice and assistance to foreign farmers. The Washington Monument, in Washington, DC. Statue of Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, DC. The Jefferson Memorial. Statue of Thomas Jefferson.