During Berlin Crisis in 1961. Scene of a street in East Berlin, Germany. A man stands on the West side of Berlin, clicks photo of East Berlin. A policeman disturbs and blocks him with a mirror. People of East Berlin go with their few possessions escaping to West Berlin. Military trucks parked on East Berlin side. People wave handkerchiefs. A young man loads his luggage in a truck. People on the East Berlin side with their possessions. An east German policeman reflects with a mirror to prevent cameras from recording the escape attempts. People on the West Berlin side watch a water hose sprayed at them to deter onlookers. A man sits on a truck and clicks photos as water is sprayed on him and the truck is forced to move on. Smoke or tear gas bomb comes from East Berlin side and men throw them back. Smoke seen everywhere. The escape of Frieda Schulz is seen from her apartment building at the border, on Bernauer Strasse. She is seen hanging from a window, still held on her arm from above by an east German official, until the receiving west German crowd from below pulls on her leg hard enough to free her, and she falls into a waiting net. Another woman is seen preparing to leap from a fifth floor window. She leaps (not seen) and is caught by firemen with a waiting net. Next, her husband is seen pushing some baggage through the window with valuables, and then he is seen leaping from the window into a waiting net held by firemen on the West Berlin side. Work goes on for building the Berlin Wall. Giant bulldozer drops dirt on ground as it razes home along the border of the Berlin Wall, and as a wide ditch is built to prevent escape by vehicle. People cut hole in barbed wire and are seen escaping to the West German side. Policemen and others help them as they get through. East Berlin police arrive and stop more people from escaping. A man and two young women are seen after they successfully escape through the barbed wire to West Berlin side.
Rally of communists and youth in East Berlin. Small socialist flag on table. A boy reads during a rally. Historical view of parade by German soldiers in 1930's Berlin Germany. Russian tanks repel people on streets during anti-Communist protest of 1953. Aerial view of Brandenburg Gate area and refugees fleeing in thousands from East Berlin to West Berlin. Revitalized West Berlin, with new construction. A building in construction and another new building seen. Modern stores with show windows displaying abundant goods including cameras and foods. People at a a busy food or deli counter and in sidewalk cafes and restaurants. Busy streets of West Berlin with early 1960s automobiles. Enduring flame monument in West Berlin Inscription on the pedestal reads 'Freiheit Recht Freide' meaning Freedom, Rights, Peace. At a conference with allies including Britain in 1960 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev walks down steps and gets into car. British Prime Minister Harold MacMillan with others walks down steps. Animated Khrushchev addresses gathering in Russian, forcefully and defiantly. MacMillan responds encouraging peaceful negotiations and no force. Newly elected Mayor Willy Brandt of West Berlin addresses people. United States President John F Kennedy with Premier Khrushchev, Secretary of State Dean Rusk and others at meeting in Vienna Austria. British flag at Headquarters of Berlin British Sector. Military police jeep stops near a sign. Soldier looks through binoculars at East West border of Berlin before Berlin Wall was substantial. During free elections in West Berlin people put their vote in ballot box. Box opened and counting of votes progresses. People see results on board. Nearly empty streets of East Berlin. Destroyed buildings of East Berlin still not repaired after World War II. The Spittelmarkt area, formerly a busy shopping market, now deserted and desolate. Mayor Brandt meets refugees and speaks over the microphone.
Views of the Berlin Wall under construction in 1961. West Berlin street scene, contrasted to scenes of East Berlin across the border, still showing unrepaired damage from World War II and otherwise lacking development. Views of East German border guards retrieving the body of Gunter Litfin from the River Spree, after his unsuccessful attempt to flee East Germany. A floral tribute to Ida Siekmann, on barbed wire at the border. View of forests in mists. Refugees with their belongings walking from East Germany over a bridge to West Berlin. View of Tempelhof airfield in Berlin. A C-54 transport airplane taking off. Buildings along the border of East and West Berlin with windows cemented shut along the Berlin Wall. Barbed wire at the border. Armed East German border guards across the border. Views of the Berlin wall border wall. Views of the moon, and stars. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,making a forceful point while speaking at a meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations, in New York, in October,1960. Seated beside him is Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko, Soviet Foreign Minister. U.S. President John F. Kennedy addressing the UN. U.S. Sailors helping Vietnam refugees from an open stake truck. U.S. soldiers attacking and firing machine guns in Korean War. Two U.S. warships at sea. A physician attending a patient. U.S. representative providing advice and assistance to foreign farmers. The Washington Monument, in Washington, DC. Statue of Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, DC. The Jefferson Memorial. Statue of Thomas Jefferson.
A picture of Bernt Leuton, a resident of East Berlin East Germany, who fled to West Berlin West Germany. Border guards at the Communist side of Berlin in East Germany. View of Leuton on August 13, 1961 after being shot by an East German guard, after successfully swimming across the connecting canal. He is hauled out by West German guards. A map of the world. Narrator begins to trace history of Bernt Leuton's shooting by recounting prior events in history of Russia and Soviet Union. View of the Winter Palace of Czar Nicholas II, with the Czar and Czarina Alexandra standing on a balcony. Saint Petersburg, Russia on January 22nd , 1905 : Peasants and workers, with their leader Russian Orthodox Priest, Father Georgi Gapon, gathered outside the palace to deliver a petition to Czar Nicholas II. A number of the people carry banners. A picture of Czar Nicholas II. Reenactment of Czar's armed cossack cavalry dispersing the crowd, The words 'My autocracy will remain unchanged' issued by the Czar to which Father Gapon replies that they "no longer have a Czar." Picture of Father George Gapon. Picture of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, and moving images of Lenin speaking. The Czar Nicholas II and his wife, escorted by guards, moving on a path during a ceremony. The Czar mounting a horse and the guards saluting him. A picture of the Czar's wife and hemophiliac son. Picture of Russian mystic Grigori Rasputin, whose occult powers were believed to have kept the Czar's son alive.
Crowded streets of West Berlin during U.S. President John F Kennedy's visit. Music played by the band as song lyrics contain name of President Kennedy (his Presidential campaign song). Presidential motorcade on the outskirts of West Berlin. Enthusiasm shown by West Berlin people is more than that shown by the people of Frankfurt,Cologne and Berne. Robert Kennedy and Vice President Johnson were prior visitors to West Berlin after the Wall was built in 1961. Views of large crowds along streets cheering for Kennedy. Boys and girls ride scooters and bicycles trying to keep pace with the entourage. A day before President's arrival, scene of East Berlin Police placing red flags on the Brandenburg Gate blocking views through it, and communists display a large board with east German propaganda messages before his arrival . Scenes of the Berlin Wall viewing both the Communist East German side and the West German side, as seen from the West German side. A woman walks her dog along the Berlin Wall. Two women stop to reflect at a memorial for a victim killed by East German police while trying to cross over "no man's land" between the two sides. Views of the Berlin Wall and barbed wire in no man's land. Presidential motorcade turns to onto 17th June Street. President Kennedy takes a look at East Berlin side. President Kennedy stands before the Wall accompanied by Chancellor of Germany Konrad Adenauer. Motorcade leaves Brandenburg Gate and crosses 17th June Street. President's car is preceded by a truck with American and German photographers. The entourage stops at the Allied Checkpoint Charlie.
During mounting Berlin Crisis, view of map of Germany with separated East and West Germany. East Berlin refugees gathered and on streets with their luggage at Marienfeld Refugee Reception Center in West Berlin. They are among the last to escape East Berlin before the Soviets close the border. Refugees in queue to be processed entering West Berlin. Old woman refugee smiles as she helps a young boy drink from a cup. Refugees at airport with their children to be flown to other cities in West Germany. They board plane and it takes off. People at railway station to see off their relatives as they flee East Germany. East German soldiers digging emplacements in roadway near Brandenburg Gate to erect blockade (the beginning of what became the Berlin Wall). They unload a truck filled with poles. Soldiers wire the border. People watch soldiers running barbed wire enclosing East Berlin territory; the beginning of the Berlin Wall. Willy Brandt, mayor of West Berlin, with others on street. Communist soldiers on the closed border. A Russian soldier on the East side of the road divided with barbed wire fence. Tanks and people on road.