Statue of Karl Marx on his grave stone in Highgate Cemetery, London. A picture of Karl Marx. Scenes in the Soviet Union. Soviet soldiers walking slowly in loose formation. Bolsheviks standing with a large banner. Damaged shops on a street. "One way" street signs in several languages. Large gathering of people carrying signs reading: "Frieden" (Peace, in German). A sign reading: "HALT, Landesgrenze" marking a German provincial boundary. A sign in German, designating the customs border at Furth im Wald, Bavaria ("Zollgrenz-Bezirk, Furth i.Wald"). East German border guards setting obstacles and sentry paths. Picture of Günter Litfin, a twenty-four-year-old tailor, who swam across the Spree Canal to West Germany on 24 August 1961. View of him being fatally shot from across the border, by East German guards, as he is being pulled into West Germany (the first such fatality at the East West German border). Animated map of the world with label references to Berlin,1961; Havana, 1959; Budapest, 1956; Coyoacan, 1940; and Kronstadt, 1921.
U.S. propaganda piece about threats by communists against various European countries. The Czechoslovak coup and demonstrations. Czech citizens moving on a street during a strike forcing conservative elements to resign from the cabinet. Scenes of police brutality and beatings against strikers. Communists take over the police. Czech President Edvard Benes with conservative politicians in a government building. Huge crowd on a street. Police clashing with crowd. Czech Prime Minister Klement Gottwald with officials. President Edvard Benes, facing possible civil war or invasion by the Soviet Union, accepts a Communist cabinet. He is seen signing documents to that effect on February 25, 1948. Other officials beside President Benes during the signing. View of the first President of Czechoslovakia Tomas Masaryk's son, Jan Masaryk, who remained the Foreign Minister, and did not agree to the new government. Two days later Jan Masaryk is discovered dead. The body of Jan Masaryk in a coffin. Edvard Benes, who resigned in June 1948 after refusing to sign the communist constitution, is seen walking slowly outside the Parliament using a cane. A guard saluting Benes. View of the body of Edvard Benes, who died in September 1948, laying in a coffin. Mourning citizens offering flowers and cry. Officials bearing the coffin. Shift to street strikes in East Germany in 1953. People during a strike and riot in Poland in 1956. Russian tanks moving on a street and Russian soldiers. Elevated view of panic and Polish citizens fleeing soldiers. October 1956: Student demonstrators on street in Budapest Hungary. Russian red star toppled from building roof in defiance. Russian troops respond on tanks in Hungary. Crowd fights back. Russians retreat. Crowd overwhelms local police. Imre Nagy, Prime Minister of Hungary, ascends steps. Hungarian crowd on streets burn communist books and papers. Russian tanks invade Hungary to crush revolt. Tanks fire guns on Hungarian street. Imre Nagy's execution announced June 17, 1958.
American officers and other NATO Military in Brandenburg to watch a partial withdrawal of the Soviet Army as it demobilizes and reduces forces in East Germany. Russian photographers take pictures. A number of obsolete and propeller driven planes are part of the demobilized equipment. The first contingents of 50,000 Soviet troops depart.
New government formed in East Germany after the defeat of Nazis in World War II. Early GDR (DDR) Communist Party meeting underway in East Germany in 1949. Attendees applaud as GDR President Wilhelm Pieck, leader of the party, is congratulated. Joseph Stalin reviews parade at Kremlin in Moscow. East German refugees fleeing to the West with their belongings in hand. East German military erecting fence posts for new wire fences to deter escape. Watch tower overlooking a border zone between East Germany and West Germany. Socialist meetings in small towns in East Germany. Townspeople marching through towns with party flags. Industry under communist rule, with men and women working at metal and coal factories and at railroads. Citizen soldiers, both men and women being trained and armed with rifles as local militia. They march in a parade with their arms. Children with Bows and arrows follow them. An archery contest for the children with Communist party leaders looking on in approval. A young East German girl shoots an arrow and hits the bulls eye on a target of Konrad Adenauer, leader of West Germany. Soviet military and tanks parade on streets of East Germany.
A large number of refugees flee East Berlin under the regime of Communist rule and reach West Berlin, in Germany. A large number of refugees walk near Berlin Quadriga. Russian and East German soldiers guard the Berlin wall line of demarcation between East and West Berlin. Families communicate across the line and relatives weep. A young girl weeps as she views relatives across the divided east and west Germany. A wedding bride waves to her parents in East Germany. A woman (Frieda Schulz) is pulled at the same time from above by east German authorities, and by West German helpers from below as she jumps from the window of her home on Bernauer Strasse to escape into West Germany. Scenes of several successful escapes by east Germans through barbed wire at the border, as they reach the hands of waiting helpers in West Germany.
During mounting Berlin Crisis, view of map of Germany with separated East and West Germany. East Berlin refugees gathered and on streets with their luggage at Marienfeld Refugee Reception Center in West Berlin. They are among the last to escape East Berlin before Krushchev closes the border. Refugees in queue to be processed entering West Berlin. Old woman refugee smiles as she helps a young boy drink from a cup. Refugees at airport with their children to be flown to other cities in West Germany. They board plane and it takes off. People at railway station to see off their relatives as they flee East Germany. East German soldiers digging emplacements in roadway near Brandenburg Gate to erect blockade. They unload a truck filled with poles. Soldiers wire the border. People watch soldiers running barbed wire enclosing East Berlin territory; the beginning of the Berlin Wall. Willy Brandt, mayor of West Berlin, with others on street. Communist soldiers on the closed border. A Russian soldier on the East side of the road divided with barbed wire fence. Tanks and people on road.