Successful test of the first German Post office mail rocket at Dummersee, Germany, on April 15,1931. It carries 180 pieces of mail (postcards). Reinhold Tiling is seen with his mechanic, Friedrich Kuhr, who holds the rocket, as Tiling inserts a cylinder containing compressed powder fuel. They then invert the rocket and Tiling affixes its nose cone. A post office official hands pieces of mail to Tiling, who places them into the rocket. They position the rocket on its launch stand and fire it. Uniformed Postal officials (and some military officers) watch the rocket as it rises smoothly after launch. Larger, better, and lighter metal (aluminum) are developed in 1931-32.
Friedrich Kuhr standing next to a huge rocket with a wing span of 4 meters.
April, 1931 in Germany. View of a closed sled resembling a small airplane fuselage, fitted with runners underneath and bundles of rockets on each side. It sits on a frozen lake. BR-1 is painted on its side. A man arrives and climbs into the cockpit. The rockets ignite and accelerate the plane somewhat erratically, as it moves along the lake surface.
First test of a precursor to the Mirak rocket in Germany. Diagram of the so-called Achenstaber rocket.. Rocket pioneer, Klaus Riedel, and an associate, hold the long slender rocket. A barn with sandbagged window is seen behind them. The men lower the rocket through guidance brackets in a wooden pole. The rocket fuse is ignited and the rocket rises fairly high into the sky but tilts over and dives, crashing into the ground. Riedel and associates stand near a truck carrying metal framework designed to guide a rocket.
Views of Johannes Winkler's first prototype (HW1-A) liquid fuel rocket. Preparations in the field for testing the HW1A. Views of Winkler and associates setting up and fueling the prototype. Photographs of The first test of a liquid fuel rocket (Winkler's HW1-A)in Europe, on February 21, 1931, in Dessau, Germany. Sketches of his model HW1-C. Photograph of Winkler sitting next to the HW1-c, on a bench in the laboratory. A so-called Shear diagram pertaining to stresses experienced by the HW1-C rocket.
July 7, 1930, Oberth and Nebel jointly achieved conrtolled burn with their cone nozzle for a rocket. Diagram of their cone nozzle and view of it being placed in a test frame outdoors. A burn diagram showing steady output. Diagram of the small (mini-rocket) named "Mirak." Views of the test stand set up in Bernstadt, Germany, with instrumentation. Rudolf Nebel standing on a small ladder looking at the rocket. The Mirak in flight. A Mirak explosion. Several buildings comprising Nebel's rocket facilities. Diagram of liquid-fueled rocket motor. Rudolf Nebel and Hermann Oberth at the test stand with their apparatus and views of it in snowy field. Test stand for the burner test in Berlin, 1931 and an explosion that occurred. View of the device with hole blown in it
Japanese international activities during World War II, 1931-1945. Troops embark for Manchuria. Shanghai lies in ruins (1937). Japanese delegation leaves the League of Nations. Soldiers fire artillery and guns. War in China. Italian troops invade Ethiopia. French troops guard Madrid. A party celebrates the Axis pact of 1940. The dignitaries of the three nations: Italy, Germany and Japan celebrate the signing of the pact. Chinese refugees clog the street. Pearl Harbor being attacked. Remnants of the U.S. fleet assemble. The U.S. amphibious assault on Guadalcanal. General Macarthur returns to the Philippines. Iwo Jima being attacked by the Allies General Buckner watches Japanese surrender on Okinawa. Kamikaze planes attack Us aircraft carriers.