Nazi soldiers at attention with guns drawn in Berlin during World War 2. U.S. soldiers on watch from damaged Berlin building. Man watching Berlin wall with binoculars while sitting in car. Pan American passenger airplane in flight after the war. Pan American passenger reading Time and other magazines. Aerial view of Berlin early 1960s. Pan American plane landing at Tempelhof Airport. Pan American passengers descending to tarmac under sign that reads, "Today Pan American has completed 93153 Transatlantic Crossings" Brandenburg Gate early 1960s. Drive through Brandenburg Gate in the 1920s. Drive through Berlin in the 1920s. Tourist bus flying American flag departs in Berlin 1920s. Berlin University 1920s. Early Nazis driving in Berlin streets. Hitler saluting parade. Hitler addressing Germans. Berlin in ruins Spring 1945 as tanks pass in front of Brandenburg Gate. Old starving woman walks on streets of Berlin amist ruins in 1945. Ruins of Berlin include Reichstag Building during 1945 battle. Women and children emerging from underground Berlin bunker in 1945, to a scene of devastation and rubble in the city. Ground view of the ruined Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche or Gedächtniskirche). Interior of ruined Reichstag Building. Potsdam Conference 1945, Map of WWII Europe. Berlin map, including official Berlin map with signatures showing Zones of Occupation. Germany allied control authority gathering including American, British, and Soviet representatives. French, American, Soviet flags in Germany. Rebuilding of Berlin mostly by women clearing rubble, using shovels, wheelbarrows and cleaning old bricks for reuse. Over crowded train in Germany post-WWII filled with civilian refugees abandoning the cities and heading to the countryside of Germany to resettle.
During 1961 in build up to Berlin Crisis: Barbed wire on border seen from West Berlin side (initial Berlin Wall). Russian soldier uses binoculars to watch an approaching jeep. Jeep stops because of barrier. Sign shows 'Achtung 500m Schutzstreifen'. Men carry a box through woods fleeing or escaping into West Germany before the border was fully closed. A man with his bicycle passing over a narrow path into West Germany, as another man passes over on foot. People in a canoe approaching a west German bank of the river or lake as they flee from east Germany. A street bus approaches and parks near an intersection with street sign for "Marienfelder Allee." Men, women, and children refugees with their suitcases on a street as they gather near a refugee processing center, before heading into West Germany. A bulldog tied. A mother feeds her baby. Young refugees on streets, refugees board bus. A map show allocation of German parts to France, United States, England and Soviet Union. Traffic on road in Berlin, with view of the bombed (from World War 2) Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church or the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche, in the background. Many German civilian pedestrians walking on streets in busy West Berlin. 1950's and 1960's cars and trucks on busy Berlin streets. People in outdoor cafe restaurant. Telefunken building is seen.
Civilians and the government officials work towards strengthening economy after Great Depression. Scenes from the Great Depression: Idle factories and signs "No men wanted." Homeless and unemployed men sleep on benches and holes are shown in the shoes. Unemployed workers in a soup line receiving food aid. Wooden shanties and shacks for housing of people in the Depression. A black woman seated outside a simple tent for her house. A young girl holds her baby sibling while seated on a rusty bunk bed as the infant child cries. Tired looking children during the depression. Sad looking woman seated on a bed rocks a baby. Scene change to 30 years later in mid 1960's. Aerial view of modern highway interchange with traffic on roads. Surveyors at work. Scientists work in laboratory. Doctors examine patients. Arm of person wearing a "Polio Vaccine Volunteer" armband. Children in line to receive polio vaccine. A girl gets a polio shot. Ferris wheel at a fair goes around. American citizens at a picnic enjoy foods assembled on tables. Communist troops march on street in East Germany parade and East German people wave small flags in review stand. Traffic on the main roads of a small American town, with a police officer directing traffic. Shops seen along roadside. Views of American farmers and scientists at work. Farmer on tractor and on harvester machines. Women work in a factory assembling machines. 1950s and 1960's cars in parking lot and woman shopper with cart. Women work in clerical jobs in an office. Nurses in classroom. Early computer technology; large electronic devices and many wires; lights and mechanical switches on electronic equipment. Reel to reel tape recorder or data recorder. Factory shipment floor with goods on belt. President John F Kennedy signs Manpower Development and Training Act in 1962. Golden Gate bridge from shore and from moving vehicle. Bridge construction workers handle tossed hot rivet. Boy watches dam construction workers. Boys running outside school. Boy and farmer in cornfield.
Rally of communists and youth in East Berlin. Small socialist flag on table. A boy reads during a rally. Historical view of parade by German soldiers in 1930's Berlin Germany. Russian tanks repel people on streets during anti-Communist protest of 1953. Aerial view of Brandenburg Gate area and refugees fleeing in thousands from East Berlin to West Berlin. Revitalized West Berlin, with new construction. A building in construction and another new building seen. Modern stores with show windows displaying abundant goods including cameras and foods. People at a a busy food or deli counter and in sidewalk cafes and restaurants. Busy streets of West Berlin with early 1960s automobiles. Enduring flame monument in West Berlin Inscription on the pedestal reads 'Freiheit Recht Freide' meaning Freedom, Rights, Peace. At a conference with allies including Britain in 1960 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev walks down steps and gets into car. British Prime Minister Harold MacMillan with others walks down steps. Animated Khrushchev addresses gathering in Russian, forcefully and defiantly. MacMillan responds encouraging peaceful negotiations and no force. Newly elected Mayor Willy Brandt of West Berlin addresses people. United States President John F Kennedy with Premier Khrushchev, Secretary of State Dean Rusk and others at meeting in Vienna Austria. British flag at Headquarters of Berlin British Sector. Military police jeep stops near a sign. Soldier looks through binoculars at East West border of Berlin before Berlin Wall was substantial. During free elections in West Berlin people put their vote in ballot box. Box opened and counting of votes progresses. People see results on board. Nearly empty streets of East Berlin. Destroyed buildings of East Berlin still not repaired after World War II. The Spittelmarkt area, formerly a busy shopping market, now deserted and desolate. Mayor Brandt meets refugees and speaks over the microphone.
Presidential election of 1960. Candidates for Presidential election race, John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon. Kennedy being welcomed during his campaign. Confetti being poured as people cheer the Kennedy couple. Kennedy at the Democratic Convention in Los Angles along with his sister and mother after being declared the Presidential candidate. Kennedy as Senator as he attends Senate committee meetings. Kennedy with his running mate Lyndon B. Johnson. Democratic Party's election campaign in Berlin, West Germany. Kennedy with wife Jacquelin and daughter Caroline. Republican party candidate Richard Nixon at Republican convention after being declared the party's Presidential candidate. Nixon with his running mate Henry Cabot Lodge. Nixon being welcomed in Poland by cheering crowds and he visits the Warsaw ghetto. Vice President Richard Nixon with Russian premier Khrushchev. Nixon campaigns extensively and receive enthusiastic crowds in various cities. Both the candidates give reasons for choosing them as the next President. Kennedy says that he aims at making America a stronger country. Whereas Nixon speaks about the experience gained by him under President Eisenhower. He emphasizes on maintaining peace without surrendering. Nixon and Kennedy after giving the reasons for their election. They shake hands as photographers take pictures.
Views of the Berlin Wall under construction in 1961. West Berlin street scene, contrasted to scenes of East Berlin across the border, still showing unrepaired damage from World War II and otherwise lacking development. Views of East German border guards retrieving the body of Gunter Litfin from the River Spree, after his unsuccessful attempt to flee East Germany. A floral tribute to Ida Siekmann, on barbed wire at the border. View of forests in mists. Refugees with their belongings walking from East Germany over a bridge to West Berlin. View of Tempelhof airfield in Berlin. A C-54 transport airplane taking off. Buildings along the border of East and West Berlin with windows cemented shut along the Berlin Wall. Barbed wire at the border. Armed East German border guards across the border. Views of the Berlin wall border wall. Views of the moon, and stars. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,making a forceful point while speaking at a meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations, in New York, in October,1960. Seated beside him is Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko, Soviet Foreign Minister. U.S. President John F. Kennedy addressing the UN. U.S. Sailors helping Vietnam refugees from an open stake truck. U.S. soldiers attacking and firing machine guns in Korean War. Two U.S. warships at sea. A physician attending a patient. U.S. representative providing advice and assistance to foreign farmers. The Washington Monument, in Washington, DC. Statue of Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, DC. The Jefferson Memorial. Statue of Thomas Jefferson.