Animated map shows changes in borders and nations surrounding Poland up until 1937. A map with strategic importance city of Danzig in Poland. Map shows Czechoslovakia, Russia, Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Germany.
Japanese army officers examining foreign military equipment. A Japanese worker employing electric drill developed in a Western country. The Japanese freighter, Tatsuno Maru, loading scrap iron at a port in the United States. Other Japanese freighters loading coal and oil for shipment back to Japan. View of the Washington Naval Conference in Memorial Continental Hall, Washington, DC, held in 1921-22 and again in 1927 and 1930, to deal with several lingering issues. Glimpse of Japanese people holding flags while gathered near the Imperial Palace in Tokyo. Glimpse of Japanese army troops on parade. Japanese Navy warships at sea. A fleet of Japanese Mitsubishi G3M bombers and Nakajima Ki-27 pursuit planes, parked on an airfield. A loose formation of Ki-27s airborne. Animated map illustrates Japanese fortification of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall islands in the Pacific. Animated map illustrating China's greater size and population vis-a-vis Japan. Animated map illustrating Japanese occupation of Manchuria in 1931. New York Times newspaper with headline "Japs Seize Manchuria" hovers over fires burning in Manchuria. Other newspaper headlines reporting on Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia; the Spanish civil war; surrender of Czechoslovakia; invasion of Poland; Nazi assaults on France, Belgium, and the Netherlands; the London Blitz; and Nazi advances against Russia on the Eastern Front. Fnally, a Boston Hearald extra edition headline reports: "Pearl Harbor Bombed." A still photograph of Japanese Baron Tanaka Giichi (on left) with two other dignitaries, circa 1929. Japanese infantry streaming into Manchuria and then celebrating as they walk into local town. A busy street in a Chinese city. Japanese soldiers in Manchuria escorting local prisoners along a street. Animated map illustrating Japananese warships surrounding harbor of Shanghai, China. View from a Japanese ship bombarding Shanghai. Smoke rising from shell striking on Shanghai waterfront. View from land of severely damaged buildings on a street, and a shell exploding in background, as Chinese defenders move to successfully repel the Japanese forces. New map illustrates subsequent Japanese move, annexing Jehol, from occupied Manchukuo, and Korea. Japanese troops entering a town in Jehol. Sun newspaper headline: "League Censures Japan." Chinese diplomat protesting at League of Nations. Japanese troops exiting railroad trains in Jehol. Aisin Gioro Puyi aka Henry Pu Yi, Kangde Emperor (Kang-te Emperor) of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, is seen saluting Japanese troops on parade. Closeup of Puyi wearing shaded glasses, looking directly into the camera. chiang Kai-shek, with other Chinese officers. Reenactment of barbarian forces riding against China and thwarted by the Great Wall. Many Chinese walking in a long line along the Great Wall. Map tracing the Great Wall across China. Aerial view of the Great Wall from overflying airplane. Japanese troops marching through a city gate; infantry climbing a sheer cliff; and helmeted Japanese soldiers marching past civilians in a city. Map illustrated progress of Chinese unification by year 1937. Japanese officers conferring during occupation. Japanese troops leave a barracks, riding in open trucks. A line of the troop trucks moving along the dirt street of a town. The troops climb from their trucks in the town.
Flashbacks of Nazi activities during World War II presented during Nuremberg Trials. Chief prosecutor from Great Britain, Hartley Shawcross, presents Count No 2, Crimes Against Peace, meaning wars of aggression in violation of international treaties and agreements. Lieutenant Colonel Schumt relates Adolf Hitler's plans to occupy Poland. View of a truck and uniformed Germans marching and agitating in Poland to advocate annexation by Germany (under Albert Forster). On August 23, 1939, Joseph Stalin and Joachim von Ribbentrop sign Russian-German non-aggression pact. Flashback view of convoy of German tanks moving near farm fields toward Poland. View of Pope Pius XII and then Franklin Delano Roosevelt appealling to Germany not to attack Poland or other sovereign nations. Raucous laughter in Reichstag as Hitler addresses German leaders and describes the appeal by Roosevelt. September 1, 1939, scenes of German troops invading Poland as Luftwaffe begins mass bombing raid. Artillery guns fire, troops in jeeps, personnel carriers, and motorcycles stream into Poland. Aerial view of Luftwaffe aircraft in formation approaching Poland and bombing Polish cities. Bombs away view as bombs fall from aircraft to ground and explosions and smoke seen on ground in Poland. City buildings in Poland seen in flames and crumbling to the ground. Line of German Wehrmacht Army forces marching on roadways into invaded territory. German Army seen invading Denmark on April 9, 1940. German sailors aboard fast moving German ship. German army soldiers aiming machine guns. Camera view of German tank as tank gun is lowered directly toward camera. German forces occupy a North Sea dock area of coastal Denmark, German tanks and vehicles drive on streets and sidewalks in Denmark as Danish citizens run and leap out of the way. Danish citizens stand quietly along sides of a road as German Army marches into a city of Denmark.
A Mercedes auto exhibition in Poznan Poland in June 1956 before unrest took hold. Flags of various nations at the show and Mercedes cars on display. A rebellion leader arrives and addresses demonstrators gathered in Poznan to protest the Soviet-led Communist government in Poland. Aerial view of Poznan Poland in 1956. Tanks of Soviet military arrive and are seen among the demonstrators. A court room during trial of the demonstrators' leaders. Workers and demonstrators gathering and meeting. Soviet Premiere Nikita Khrushchev arrives in Poland. His plane is seen landing and he walks down the steps from the plane to the tarmac. Wladyslaw Gomulka is tapped to lead the Communist party in Poland. He is seen speaking to a group assembled. Image of Konstantin Rokossovsky who Gomulka had removed from power after he had led military actions against the reform demonstrators in Poznan. Citizens in Poland celebrate Gomulka's ascension as Communist party leader and his anti-Stalinist reforms. Soviet tanks depart from Poland. English Newspaper headline "Poles sweep Stalinists from Power, Gomulka heads Freedeom Setup." A priest accepts flowers and gifts from people celebrating the return of freedom of religion in Poland.
Crisis in Poland after the imposition of Martial Law by its Military Government. World wide demonstrations and protests against the military rule in Poland supported by Soviet government. A large crowd of demonstrators in Tokya, Japan protests on roads carrying banners and their leader addresses on a microphone. A solidarity leader addresses an assembly of demonstrators in Lisbon, Portugal. Protesters assemble at the Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Australia. Girls with Polish flags sing freedom songs. Hans Dietrich Gentscher from Federal Republic of Germany addresses the people assembled. U.S. Senator Henry Jackson and Dr Jerzy Milesewski support the solidarity and Polish people. A huge demonstration in London with people holding banners and placards in support of solidarity in Poland. Civilians demonstrate on the snow covered roads of Ottawa in Canada. People shout for freedom of Poland. A leader reads his speech. A large crowd assembled to support solidarity in Washington DC, United States. U.S. Ambassador to United Nations condemns the Soviet supported military rule in Poland. German Confederation Labor leader supports Polish solidarity during a summit in Germany. A crowd demonstrates in Philadelphia and marches for Polish solidarity. People in a church pray for freedom and prosperity of Polish people.
The fourth presidential election debate held between Democratic nominee Senator John F. Kennedy and Republican nominee U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon in New York, United States on 21st October 1960. ABC News correspondent Quincy Howe speaks during the debate and allows correspondent Walter Cronkite to ask Senator Kennedy a question. Mr. Cronkite asks Senator Kennedy that in what areas the United States might take offensive against communism rather than being defensive to the Soviet Union. Senator Kennedy replies to the question and says that the eastern Europe is very vulnerable area according to him. He says there should be policies which make it possible to establish closer relation with a country like Poland and he also mentions the Hungarian Revolution. Senator Kennedy speaks about the relations between the Soviet Union and China. He says that India represents a great area for affirmative action by the free world. India started from about the same place that China did. India under a free society has been making some progress. But if India does not succeed, Communism can take over. He says that in Africa, Asia, Latin America, eastern Europe, the great force on their side is the desire of people to be free. Correspondent Howe asks Vice President Nixon to comment on the topic. Nixon speaks about Poland and says that Poland in not in a position to take any independent position under Soviet control. He talks about aids being sent to Poland from the U.S. and says that the U.S. can have more exchange with Poland or with any other Iron Curtain countries.