Entente Powers intervention in Russia during World War 1. Slate identifies Commander of British Forces General Henry Owen Knox. (Research indicates he was an honorary Brigadier General circa 1918-19, and may have been the ranking officer with British Forces aboard ship while en route to Russia.) He smokes a cigarette and talks with another British officer on the ship. (Note: the Commander of the British mission in in Russia during the Allied intervention was Major-General Alfred Knox.) (World War I; World War 1; WWI; WW1)
The German Army in conflict with Russia in World War I. A map of Soviet Russia, showing cities of Kiev and Odessa. Snow covered roads in Russia. German army vehicles move along the snow covered roads. Scene from First World War, of German General Paul von Hindenburg and his deputy, General Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff, leading procession of officials and officers across a railroad train platform. Lieutenant General Helmuth von Pannwitz, Cossack Cavalry Commander, on horseback in a public square. Lieutenant General Anton Denikin with Cossack troops in winter weather coats and hats, talking and laughing. German troops on the march. German commanders review troops occupying a city (Odessa, 1918?) What appears to be a baroque-style cathedral in background. Occupying German troops parade through streets of city. German soldiers on guard at a large building entrance. A sign on a building reads in German 'German Commander'.
Military band (not playing) leads U.S. soldiers of the 339th Infantry, in loose formation, through wooded area to a cemetery in a field near a church in Archangel (Arkhangelsk) during the Allied North Russia Intervention of World War 1. Several officers (unidentifiable) are standing on a raised stand. Two large crosses are seen behind them. Scene changes completely, to American Memorial Day ceremony at Archangel,in 1919. Allied officers occupy stands decorated with colors of the participating Entente powers. The military band is located nearby. A speaker's stand is set up and ostensibly occupied by Brigadier General Wilds P. Richardson and British Field Marshal Edmund Ironside. (But they cannot be recognized in the distance) A horse and carriage are seen in the far background. Soldiers, sailors, and civilians are in attendance. The ceremony begins with everyone saluting colors held by an honor guard. Then, a squad of American soldiers fires a three-salvo salute with their rifles. (World War I; World War 1; WWI; WW1)
After Lenin makes peace with Germany, civil war breaks out in Russia. White Russian troops are seen fighting against Bolshevik troops in the snow. American soldiers, supporting the White Russians, are seen in Archangel (Arkhangelsk). Cossacks on horseback carry the Tsarist flag. The Romanovs, Tsar Nicholas II and his family are photographed outdoors seated on a wooden bench by barricade fence at Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg. Bolsheviks arresting other revolutionaries who were opposed to them, and executing them by firing squad. Vladimir Lenin with cat in his lap. View of Fanny Yefimovna Kaplan (AKA "Dora") who attempted to assassinate Lenin on August 30, 1918. View of Lenin speaking to Soviet workers. Newspaper of September 1, 1918 reports on the assassination attempt, with dateline London, August 31st: "Lenin wounded twice by assassin. Attempt on Red Premier's life at Moscow. Commissary Uritzky murdered at Petrograd." Crowd in turmoil in Moscow. Newspaper reports capture of would-be assassin, noting that "official Bolshevist paper says, "She is girl of intellectual class." Narrator states that some 500 anti-Bolsheviks are executed in Moscow.
Scenes in Lyndhurst, New Jersey after explosion in the Canadian Car and Foundry Company in Kingsland (in Meadowlands of New Jersey) during World War 1. The company built shells for shipment to Russia in World War I. Over 500,000 shells were destroyed in the blast and fire, bombarding the surrounding areas in Kingsland - Lyndhurst. Black smoke rising in the distance, at night, seen from the coast. Close views of industrial buildings and homes on fire. Night views of homes and buildings engulfed in flames. People walk through smoking wreckage afterwards and pick through debris. Devastation covers area flattened by explosion and fire. Twisted railroad tracks covered by debris. A pile of munitions shells in a heap in the burned out shell of a building. View of the D.L.&W (Delaware, Lackawanna & Western) Railroad Shops building at Kingsland (now Lyndhurst), with DL&W train car 605 parked in front. Railroad Shops building is pitted with holes and broken glass from 3-inch shell bombardment. Two men inspect a damaged railroad car with broken glass and a 3-inch shell embedded in the side of the car. A heavily damaged residential house with holes and blown-out windows, and a shell embedded in the front door. Citizens pick through wreckage in front of a building where only cement pilings remain. Scene shifts to Perth Amboy area, October 1918. View of displaced families made homeless by the T.A. Gillespie Shell Loading Plant explosion (Morgan Depot Explosion; largest munitions factory in the world). Refugees sit in a town square. Men, women, and children among the refugees. An Army soldier and Navy sailor seen near refugees as they eat and drink. View of Smith Street in Perth Amboy with shops damaged by the blast. Under Martial Law, U.S. Army troops patrol with rifles to prevent looting. Pedestrians and a streetcar pass. Sign along sidewalk for entrance to Michaels & Co. at 178 Smith Street. (Suspected cause of incidents: Gillespie - worker error; Kingsland - sabotage as in the 1916 Black Tom explosion.)
Scenes from the Russian Revolution and years immediately after in Russia, roughly 1918-1921. Troops moving in the snow. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the Bolshevik leader, makes peace with the Germans. The Civil War breaks out in Russia. White Russians continue war with World War 1 allies, against Germany. Czarist Cossacks seek to restore the monarchy of Nicholas II. Photograph of the Russian Czar and family sitting outdoors on the ledge of a wooden building. Secret police seen arresting people. Bolshevik firing squad executes three prisoners, who fall dead into a mass grave behind them. Lenin, holding a kitten in his hand, seated at a table. March 7, 1921: Workers and sailors gathered on the streets, in Kronstadt, demanding peace, freedom, and bread. Red Army Troops disperse the crowd, shooting many of them. Leon Trotsky, Commander of the Red Army, states that the slaughter was necessary. Trotsky seen walking with other officers. People on the sides of a path watching Trotsky. Families looking over dead workers and sailors in a field.