Rise of Benito Mussolini after World War I and taking Italy to World War II. Benito Mussolini and the Blackshirts parade in Rome when the Fascist Party comes to power after ousting Italian Prime Minister Luigi Facta in October 1922. Civilians of Benito Mussolini's Fascist Party parade in the 'March on Rome' when Mussolini takes over the government. Cheering civilians surround Mussolini as he exits from a building. The Blackshirts parade. Mussolini speaks from a balcony. A large crowd gives the Fascist salute at one of Mussolini's mass meetings. Members of the Fascist Youth parade on the streets. German Chancellor Adolf Hitler deplanes in Venice and meets Italian Prime Minister Mussolini for the first time. Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Gian Galeazzo Ciano and Mussolini and staff review troops. Mussolini shakes hands with Hitler, surrounded by Italian notables. A Royal Box at a ceremony shows Hitler, Mussolini, King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and the Queen of Italy. An Italian tank review near Rome's Colosseum. Italian crack troops goose-step past the Royal Box for Hitler to review. The Munich Conference shows Hitler, Mussolini, Prime Minister of France Eduard Daladier, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain among others. Mussolini signs the Munich Pact. A crowd massed near the Victor Emmanuel Memorial acclaim Mussolini after his return from Munich.
Views of Paris prior to World War II. The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Arch of Triumph). The Tuileries gardens (Jardins des Tuileries) with bed of tulips in full bloom in foreground. The Eiffel Tower (la tour Eiffel). The fountain of River Commerce and Navigation at the Place de la Concord, Paris, with the Madeleine church (L'église de la Madeleine) directly behind, the Hotel de Crillon,barely seen at left, and its twin building, the French Naval Ministry, opposite, on the Rue Royale. People strolling and shopping on the Boulevard Haussmann. Awning of Les Deux Magots café and patrons seated at tables outside, in the Saint-Germain-des-Prés area of Paris. People relaxing in the Tuileries gardens, with Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel and Musée du Louvre in background. An artist at work, seated at a bench in the foreground. The west facade of Notre Dame Cathedral. Parisians looking at posters, reading in parks, visiting bookstores. Sign directing visitors to the Congres des Ecrivains (Congress of Writers) held at Maison de la Mutualité conference center at 24 Rue Saint-Victor, 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.in June, 1935. Several writers seated at a table with others standing around. Closeup of three. Closeup of British writer, Aldous Huxley, wearing eyeglasses. Two writers conversing. Scene shifts to Paris at night. Traffic on streets. Illuminated sign at Moulin Rouge cinema, topped with illuminated arms of a windmill. Sign of nightclub, Le Rat Mort, in Place Pigalle. Interior of a Paris nightclub with sophisticated clientele. French entertainer playing a guitar. An official posting an announcement called "Counseil de Revision," calling for conscription of citizens for military service. Parisians preparing defenses in the city, in front of the Eiffel Tower. Man deep in a trench preparing a shelter. Men carrying sandbags up a ladder to protect a national monument. Copy of the New York Times newspaper annnouncing the German attack on Poland. Copy of New York Daily News announcing fall of Holland. The New York World-Telegram paper announcing capitulation of France. German Panzer II tanks and motorcycle troops entering Paris. German infantry marching through the Arch of Triumph, on the Champs-Élysées. A Frenchman wiping his eyes as he watches the occupying troops. Hermann Goering with other officers riding in an open car along a Paris street. Closeup of Arch of Triumph. Adolf Hitler, accopanied by staff, looking at the Eiffel Tower. Nazi flag flying from the tower. Closeup of Hitler looking around. The U.S. Capitol building in Washington, DC. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in Academic garb, at the University of Virginia commencement ceremony, in Memorial Gymnasium, on June 10, 1940. (FDR's son Franklin Jr. was among the graduates assembled, from the UVA Law School). Roosevelt expresses American sympathy and support for nations invaded by the Nazis. American street scene. Women preparing gifts intended for France. A poster showing a French soldier, entitled: "Le Paquet Au Front." American draftees in training at an army post in the U.S. Smoke billowing from American industrial facilities. Workers at an American shipyard. View of warships under construction at the yard. A Huge gun barrel being moved on special rail dollies, in a U.S. arms factory. U.S. Navy F4U Corsair Production Line during World War II. M3 Lee medium tanks being manufactured in U.S. factory. Closeup of finished one being transported via transverse crane. M4 Sherman tanks moving on flat rail cars. A speeding steam locomotive pulling freight cars. Martin PBM-5 Mariner in flight over an Atlantic convoy carrying war materiel to the United Kingdom. Sailor wearing headset, standing near depth charges at stern of a ship. British Naval Ensign flying from mast of a ship.
Notables in Paris, France, at ceremonies before the Panthéon De La Guerre is packaged and shipped to the United States, where it would be shown in various places, beginning with Madison Square Garden, New York City, May 19, 1927. Raymond Poincaré, President of the French Council of Ministers, speaks in the building housing the Panthéon De La Guerre. The American flag in a holder to his left. Principal participants including Mrs. W.K Vanderbilt (Virginia Graham Fair Vanderbilt, aka "Birdie") are seen in front row chairs. Closeup of several French officials, including Marshal Philippe Pétain and Aristide Briand, French Foreign Minister. Mrs. Vanderbilt cuts a cord to release the huge cyclorama painting, the world's largest, featuring 5,000 full-length portraits of prominent figures from World War I. Views of the painting.
French war artist Leon Reni Mel in Paris, France. Leon Reni Mel stands on a ladder holding a painting palette. A painting made by Leon Reni Mel.
Quaker members of American Friends Service Committee help people in France. They work at the Matson Maternelle de la Marne Maternity Hospital in Chalons-sur-Marne, France. Exterior of the hospital. Two nurses come out, holding a baby. Exterior of the hospital which was opened in 1922. Groups of nurses walk in the ground. American, English and French nurses in the hospital. A patient arrives in a horse drawn carriage. Nurses help a pregnant mother to step into hospital. Interior of the hospital ward. Separate ward for dependent children who come in with their mothers. Nurses play with the young children. They feed the babies. Maternity ward. Mother in bed is given baby. Patient leaves hospital with husband and new baby.
Animated map shows Amercan forces advancing toward Paris. Views of German troops disorganized and making their way indivually among burning and destroyed military tanks and vehicles. A U.S. colonel confers with U.S. Armored unit officers, using hood of jeep as a table. U.S. Sherman tanks and tank destroyers moving along dirt roads toward Paris, at high speed and passing beyond the Orleans region.They move rapidly through groups of cheering French citizens in a French town. American armored units moving to bypass Paris. U.S. Army Air Force airplanes dropping maps to the armored units by parachute, because they were moving too fast to be supplied by ground. French forces,armed with American tanks, vehicles, and arms, are ordered to advance and take Paris. As they proceed, U.S. Army Air Forces support them from the air. Formations of P-51 fighter and B-26 bombers are seen.The French forces advance at rate of 25km per day. They are joyously welcomed as they pass through French towns on their way. Scenes of Paris. Local residents in line at a shop. German are seen beginning to leave Paris. A line of horse-drawn wagons is seen in the street. On August 14, 1944, Paris Police went on strike. They are seen drawn up in formation. August 15, 1944, the Gestapo left Paris. French citizens and police open fire on German Army vehicle.Parisians begin to hang the tricolor from their windows.French resistance fighters seen running in streets of paris and firing weapons. A doctor and several nurses run for cover. Parisians begin to fill the streets as elements of the French Army enter Paris.General Charles de Gaulle walking along a street in Paris.