History of Czechoslovakia from 1919 to 1968 depicts lives of its people and various crisis. Clip shows combination of still images and moving images, with background of Czech musical soundtrack. A burning Nazi plane shot by Soviet military during World War II. Soviet Red Army marches in Prague, Poland in May 1945 to rescue from German occupation and atrocities. People destroy Nazi emblems and symbols from buildings. People assemble in large numbers on roads and cheer for the incoming Soviet troops and tanks. Civilians of Czechoslovakia during normal life after World War 2. Workers in mines, farmers in field and women work in houses. Spread of communism and communists make a star formation during a rally in Prague (sometimes called the Prague Spring). President Edvard Benes in 1948 signs pact with Soviet government. Photos of Soviet General Joseph Stalin and other Soviet leaders in his office. Various Presidents and leaders of Czechoslovakia during the 1950s. Military and civilian communist groups march on streets in 1956. Czech Skoda automobile production factory scenes in mid 1960s. Workers work in factories and shops till night hours. A Czech textile factory scene. Czech men and women in 1960s fashions enjoying mugs of beer. Several scenes with Alexander Dubček, (Alexander Dubcek), then Soviet leaders Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Brezhnev arrive for meeting with Dubček. Smiling Czech people walk in cities and at a cafe during liberalization measures. Soviet and Warsaw Pact tanks, armored vehicles, infantry and aircraft start their occupation ending the Prague Spring in Prague, Bratislave and other cities in August 1968. Civilians argue with Soviet troops and demonstrate in streets. Large crowd of civilians watch the retreating Soviet forces from Czechoslovakia in 1968. Red Army met with agitation and resistance on streets by civilians. Soviet troops fire at some demonstrating civilians.
Flashbacks of Nazi activities during World War II presented during Nuremberg Trials. Chief prosecutor from Great Britain, Hartley Shawcross, presents Count No 2, Crimes Against Peace, meaning wars of aggression in violation of international treaties and agreements. Lieutenant Colonel Schumt relates Adolf Hitler's plans to occupy Poland. View of a truck and uniformed Germans marching and agitating in Poland to advocate annexation by Germany (under Albert Forster). On August 23, 1939, Joseph Stalin and Joachim von Ribbentrop sign Russian-German non-aggression pact. Flashback view of convoy of German tanks moving near farm fields toward Poland. View of Pope Pius XII and then Franklin Delano Roosevelt appealling to Germany not to attack Poland or other sovereign nations. Raucous laughter in Reichstag as Hitler addresses German leaders and describes the appeal by Roosevelt. September 1, 1939, scenes of German troops invading Poland as Luftwaffe begins mass bombing raid. Artillery guns fire, troops in jeeps, personnel carriers, and motorcycles stream into Poland. Aerial view of Luftwaffe aircraft in formation approaching Poland and bombing Polish cities. Bombs away view as bombs fall from aircraft to ground and explosions and smoke seen on ground in Poland. City buildings in Poland seen in flames and crumbling to the ground. Line of German Wehrmacht Army forces marching on roadways into invaded territory. German Army seen invading Denmark on April 9, 1940. German sailors aboard fast moving German ship. German army soldiers aiming machine guns. Camera view of German tank as tank gun is lowered directly toward camera. German forces occupy a North Sea dock area of coastal Denmark, German tanks and vehicles drive on streets and sidewalks in Denmark as Danish citizens run and leap out of the way. Danish citizens stand quietly along sides of a road as German Army marches into a city of Denmark.
A Mercedes auto exhibition in Poznan Poland in June 1956 before unrest took hold. Flags of various nations at the show and Mercedes cars on display. A rebellion leader arrives and addresses demonstrators gathered in Poznan to protest the Soviet-led Communist government in Poland. Aerial view of Poznan Poland in 1956. Tanks of Soviet military arrive and are seen among the demonstrators. A court room during trial of the demonstrators' leaders. Workers and demonstrators gathering and meeting. Soviet Premiere Nikita Khrushchev arrives in Poland. His plane is seen landing and he walks down the steps from the plane to the tarmac. Wladyslaw Gomulka is tapped to lead the Communist party in Poland. He is seen speaking to a group assembled. Image of Konstantin Rokossovsky who Gomulka had removed from power after he had led military actions against the reform demonstrators in Poznan. Citizens in Poland celebrate Gomulka's ascension as Communist party leader and his anti-Stalinist reforms. Soviet tanks depart from Poland. English Newspaper headline "Poles sweep Stalinists from Power, Gomulka heads Freedeom Setup." A priest accepts flowers and gifts from people celebrating the return of freedom of religion in Poland.
Soldiers and their families board railroad box cars marked with Polish Imperial seal, at a rail yard, during the Soviet-Polish war. A soldier sits with his wife and four children, plus their dog. All of them (including the dog) are eating bread. A man, wearing Lapti footwear, poses for the camera.
Soviet prisoners of war march along the street of a town in the Ukraine during the short war between Poland and Soviet Russia following World War 1. Trees in the background. Two Polish officers are seen, outside a hut, giving instructions to two prisoners, who are then led away by an armed guard. An area filled with potatoes, on the ground. Prisoners take some of the potatoes away in cartons. Prisoners are seen eating bread.
Crisis in Poland after the imposition of Martial Law by its Military Government. World wide demonstrations and protests against the military rule in Poland supported by Soviet government. A large crowd of demonstrators in Tokya, Japan protests on roads carrying banners and their leader addresses on a microphone. A solidarity leader addresses an assembly of demonstrators in Lisbon, Portugal. Protesters assemble at the Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Australia. Girls with Polish flags sing freedom songs. Hans Dietrich Gentscher from Federal Republic of Germany addresses the people assembled. U.S. Senator Henry Jackson and Dr Jerzy Milesewski support the solidarity and Polish people. A huge demonstration in London with people holding banners and placards in support of solidarity in Poland. Civilians demonstrate on the snow covered roads of Ottawa in Canada. People shout for freedom of Poland. A leader reads his speech. A large crowd assembled to support solidarity in Washington DC, United States. U.S. Ambassador to United Nations condemns the Soviet supported military rule in Poland. German Confederation Labor leader supports Polish solidarity during a summit in Germany. A crowd demonstrates in Philadelphia and marches for Polish solidarity. People in a church pray for freedom and prosperity of Polish people.