A Mercedes auto exhibition in Poznan Poland in June 1956 before unrest took hold during Polish uprising of 1956. Flags of various nations at the show and Mercedes cars on display. A rebellion leader arrives and addresses demonstrators gathered in Poznan to protest the Soviet-led Communist government in Poland. Aerial view of Poznan Poland in 1956. Tanks of Soviet military arrive and are seen among the demonstrators. A court room during trial of the demonstrators' leaders. Workers and demonstrators gathering and meeting. Soviet Premiere Nikita Khrushchev arrives in Poland. His plane is seen landing and he walks down the steps from the plane to the tarmac. Wladyslaw Gomulka is tapped to lead the Communist party in Poland. He is seen speaking to a group assembled. Image of Konstantin Rokossovsky who Gomulka had removed from power after he had led military actions against the reform demonstrators in Poznan. Citizens in Poland celebrate Gomulka's ascension as Communist party leader and his anti-Stalinist reforms. Soviet tanks depart from Poland. English Newspaper headline "Poles sweep Stalinists from Power, Gomulka heads Freedeom Setup." A priest accepts flowers and gifts from people celebrating the return of freedom of religion in Poland.
Scenes from the Hungarian Revolution of 1956: A revolution against the Stalinist government in 1956 in Hungary. Aerial view of Budapest in 1956. Communist leader Mátyás Rákosi addressing a crowd in a public square. Rakosi not yet challenged by uprising. Hungarian Revolution demonstrators on roads and at government buildings in Budapest. Students and writers assembled in October 1956 in solidarity with the recently successful anti-Stalinist uprising in Poland. The police fire at revolutionaries. Fighting in streets as secret police combat revolutionaries.
U.S. propaganda piece about threats by communists against various European countries. The Czechoslovak coup and demonstrations. Czech citizens moving on a street in Czechoslovakia during a strike forcing conservative elements to resign from the cabinet. Scenes of police brutality and beatings against strikers. Communists take over the police. Czech President Edvard Benes with conservative politicians in a government building. Huge crowd on a street. Police clashing with crowd. Czech Prime Minister Klement Gottwald with officials. President Edvard Benes, facing possible civil war or invasion by the Soviet Union, accepts a Communist cabinet. He is seen signing documents to that effect on February 25, 1948. Other officials beside President Benes during the signing. View of the first President of Czechoslovakia Tomas Masaryk's son, Jan Masaryk, who remained the Foreign Minister, and did not agree to the new government. Two days later Jan Masaryk is discovered dead. The body of Jan Masaryk in a coffin. Edvard Benes, who resigned in June 1948 after refusing to sign the communist constitution, is seen walking slowly outside the Parliament using a cane. A guard saluting Benes. View of the body of Edvard Benes, who died in September 1948, laying in a coffin. Mourning citizens offering flowers and cry. Officials bearing the coffin. Shift several years later to street strikes in East Germany in 1953. People during a strike and riot in Poland in 1956. Russian tanks moving on a street and Soviet soldiers are seen. Elevated view of panic and Polish citizens fleeing soldiers. October 1956: Student demonstrators on street in Budapest Hungary during the Hungarian Uprising of 1956. Soviet Russian red star is toppled by crowds from a building roof in a sign of defiance. Russian troops respond with tanks on the streets in Hungary. Crowd fights back. Russians retreat. Crowd overwhelms local police. Imre Nagy, Prime Minister of Hungary, ascends steps. Hungarian crowd on streets burn communist books and papers. Russian tanks invade Hungary to crush revolt. Tanks fire guns on Hungarian street. Imre Nagy's execution announced June 17, 1958.
The 1956 uprising in Hungary. Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenthy is freed from prison on October 30, 1956, on November 3, he made a radio broadcast praising the revolution. (He is seen, possibly at that event.) Smoke rises from a tugboat in a harbor, where relief supplies are piled on a dock. People read about the rebel triumph in newspapers distributed from a truck, in Budapest. Soviet-built Li-2 airplanes (similar to DC-3) airlift relief supplies from Poznan, Poland. Convoy of ambulances and medical teams and supplies from International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) cross into Hungary at a border control point. Revolutionaries get medical treatment in hospitals. Sacks of relief supplies are seen.
Civilians gather on streets of Berlin and celebrate the socialist DDR (GDR) government in East Germany around 1949 or soon after. Uniformed band plays during a ceremony in East Germany. The spectators and a group of uniformed party leaders stand, cheer, and clap. A east German teenage girl kisses the flag. Next scene shows unrest and protests with burning flags in the streets of Berlin, East Germany, during the Uprising of 1953. Crowd burns a flag and then tears at another flag to destroy it. Crowd marches in the street in protest. Scenes of Soviet tanks rolling. Next scene shows a protest rally during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Narrator mentions revolt in Poland also. Large number of civilians march on roads and cut the center emblem out of a East German flag during protest.
History of Czechoslovakia from 1919 to 1968 depicts lives of its people and various crisis. Clip shows combination of still images and moving images, with background of Czech musical soundtrack. A burning Nazi plane shot by Soviet military during World War II. Soviet Red Army marches in Prague, Poland in May 1945 to rescue from German occupation and atrocities. People destroy Nazi emblems and symbols from buildings. People assemble in large numbers on roads and cheer for the incoming Soviet troops and tanks. Civilians of Czechoslovakia during normal life after World War 2. Workers in mines, farmers in field and women work in houses. Spread of communism and communists make a star formation during a rally in Prague (sometimes called the Prague Spring). President Edvard Benes in 1948 signs pact with Soviet government. Photos of Soviet General Joseph Stalin and other Soviet leaders in his office. Various Presidents and leaders of Czechoslovakia during the 1950s. Military and civilian communist groups march on streets in 1956. Czech Skoda automobile production factory scenes in mid 1960s. Workers work in factories and shops till night hours. A Czech textile factory scene. Czech men and women in 1960s fashions enjoying mugs of beer. Several scenes with Alexander Dubček, (Alexander Dubcek), then Soviet leaders Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Brezhnev arrive for meeting with Dubček. Smiling Czech people walk in cities and at a cafe during liberalization measures. Soviet and Warsaw Pact tanks, armored vehicles, infantry and aircraft start their occupation ending the Prague Spring in Prague, Bratislave and other cities in August 1968. Civilians argue with Soviet troops and demonstrate in streets. Large crowd of civilians watch the retreating Soviet forces from Czechoslovakia in 1968. Red Army met with agitation and resistance on streets by civilians. Soviet troops fire at some demonstrating civilians.