Rise of Benito Mussolini after World War I and taking Italy to World War II. Benito Mussolini and the Blackshirts parade in Rome when the Fascist Party comes to power after ousting Italian Prime Minister Luigi Facta in October 1922. Civilians of Benito Mussolini's Fascist Party parade in the 'March on Rome' when Mussolini takes over the government. Cheering civilians surround Mussolini as he exits from a building. The Blackshirts parade. Mussolini speaks from a balcony. A large crowd gives the Fascist salute at one of Mussolini's mass meetings. Members of the Fascist Youth parade on the streets. German Chancellor Adolf Hitler deplanes in Venice and meets Italian Prime Minister Mussolini for the first time. Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Gian Galeazzo Ciano and Mussolini and staff review troops. Mussolini shakes hands with Hitler, surrounded by Italian notables. A Royal Box at a ceremony shows Hitler, Mussolini, King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and the Queen of Italy. An Italian tank review near Rome's Colosseum. Italian crack troops goose-step past the Royal Box for Hitler to review. The Munich Conference shows Hitler, Mussolini, Prime Minister of France Eduard Daladier, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain among others. Mussolini signs the Munich Pact. A crowd massed near the Victor Emmanuel Memorial acclaim Mussolini after his return from Munich.
Rise of fascism in Germany and Italy due to economic and social unrest in the wake of World War 1. Animated map of Japan, Germany and its neighboring countries, and Italy. Views of Italian Fascist "Black Shirts" marching bearing flags, and rendering fascist salutes. Fascists participating in the famous "March on Rome" in October, 1922. Spectators line the sidewalks and side of the road. Brief (jerky) views of unrest in Italy following World War I, due to unemployment and hard times. People getting food at an outdoor soup kitchen. Fascists promising better times are seen parading and riding in jammed open cars. Benito Mussolini, who was elected to Parliament in 1921, is seen in a top hat, arms akimbo, standing with other officials. Glimpse of Black Shirts marching. Back to Mussolini, again, who now makes some remarks to those standing with him and expresses himself with exaggerated body language. Another glimpse of Black Shirts marching. Film transitions to Germany, where Adolf Hitler is seen walking through a dense crowd of supporters. Hitler's clothes resemble a military uniform. Next, scenes illustrating the terrible post-World War 1 hyperinflation suffered by Germany during the Weimar Republic. Various banknotes and currency in ridiculous denominations are shown. People trying to buy groceries during this period. German militaristic marchers. Fascists giving arm salutes as they parade in a city street. General Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg (who is also President of Germany) is seen standing in front of Germany's top military leaders. Directly behind him is Marshal August von Mackensen, in a fur busby hat with Totenkopf (death head) insignia. Other Generals wear pickelhaube spiked helmets. Hindenburg's closest associate, General Erich Ludendorff stands just behind and to the left of Hindenburg. Glimpse of German soldiers in more modern uniforms. Next, Hindenburg is seen reviewing troops in the company of their commander. Next, Hitler is seen with a group of German civilian industrialists whose interests he promises to support. Alfred Krupp Jr. sits, with his legs crossed, next to Hitler. Glimpse of Hitler, in uniform, waving from a window. People running as a cadre of mounted police canter in formation down the street.
United States sailors visit St Peter's Square and the City of Vatican, Rome. People walk at St Peter's Square in Vatican City, Rome. People walk around a fountain at St Peter's Square.
Allied campaign in Italy during World War II. Allied troops and equipment advance on a road to Rome. Various street signs on the way read Rome. A map of Italy. Deserted streets of Rome as the Nazis withdraw. Allied troops enter Rome and civilians celebrate their liberation. Newspaper headlines about the liberation of Rome. Pope Pius XII addresses a large gathering from a balcony in the Vatican City. People pray. People gathered around dead soldiers. A soldier removes his gear and helmet as he enters a church. A church bell rings.
Liberation of Rome, Italy from German forces by Allied troops. Opening scenes are of German occupation of Rome earlier in the war during winter campaign, and German forces marching British and American captured allied forces through the streets of Rome. Coliseum seen in background as Allied forces are marched by German armed guards. Buildings along the sides of the street. Rubbled buildings and wrecked equipment in the city. German Field Marshall Albert Kesselring looking through field glasses at battlefield. Smoke arises due to firing and bombardment from the Allied and the German army. Heavy artillery is fired including German 280mm cannon. After Germans retreat, the U.S. forces of the 5th Army enter Rome in triumph. U.S. Army General Mark Clark enters with other officers and soldiers in the city. Civilians cheering and applauding. U.S. troops and tanks passing through the city. Bells of Saint Peters basilica ringing. A large crowd gathers near the basilica. Pope Pius XII addressing the crowd. Prince Umberto II of Italy arrives in front of the crowd. Crowd cheering and applauding. American soldiers queue to enjoy real beer served from wooden barrels, made from supplies shipped from the United States. Smiling soldiers fill metal cups with beer. Wrecked railroad marshalling yards in Civitavecchia Italy are seen, as U.S. Army soldiers inspect an abandoned large German Krupp K5 rail gun (Krupp 28-cm-Kanone 5 (E). The gun shown here is either "Robert" or "Leopold" as termed by the Germans, also known by Allied names "Anzio Annie" or "Anzio Express".
A film titled 'Liberation of Rome' shows the arrival of Allied troops in Rome, Italy and the end of Fascist rule during World War II. On June 4, 1944: Allied soldiers on the streets of Rome as people celebrate their liberation. Soldiers loaded on M4 Sherman tanks move past large crowds. The American flag. A Scots pipe band plays as they march through the throng. Allied soldiers move past the Colosseum, Victor Emmanuel Memorial and the Piazza Venezia. People gathered in large numbers on the streets to celebrate the liberation of Rome. A sign reads ' War staff room Combined chiefs of staff '. Past events depict Chiefs of Staff of the U.S. at a meeting as they discuss the plan to liberate Italy from Fascist control. Animated map depicts Allied operations in North Africa and the invasion of Sicily. Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini reviews troops. Nazi aircraft take off from an airfield in Italy. German StuG III Assault Guns and Pz.III & Pz.IV tanks being transported on railroad flatcars.