Space research from the ground with a Scatter Radar. National Bureau of Standards laboratories in Boulder, Colorado. The Central Radio Propogation Laboratory. Cars parked outside. Hills in the background. Dr. Kenneth Bowles and a colleague work on a formula. Animation: Incoherent scatter of radio waves by electrons in the ionosphere. Transmission of powerful pulsed radio signal in a narrow beam. The beam penetrates the ionosphere and excites the free electrons. The scatter a weak signal which is detected by a sensitive antenna, and the signal comes back to Earth. Remaining portions of a sensitive antenna at the pioneering field site in Havana, Illinois. Dr. Ken Bowles and other scientists decide on a site. Animation: The magnetic equator and lines of the magnetic field. Pulsed radar signals and lines of force on the monitor. Animation: Chemical composition of the Earth's atmospheric gases. The scientists decide on Lima in Peru, due to its proximity to the magnetic equator and U.S. Lima, Peru: Buildings, guards, churches, plazas and boulevards in Lima including the Government Palace in Lima with guards in front, the Catedral de Lima (Catheral of Lima) and the Plaza Mayor de Lima . Construction work in Lima. Cars on a market street. People on the sidewalk. Shipping and port facilities in Callao, Peru. Workers unload goods. People board a Braniff International aircraft. Housing facility in the Lima suburb of Miraflores.
The Lima Conference in Lima, Peru. Former U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull presiding at the meeting. Officers seated at a desk. They discuss documents. Typists type documents on typewriters.
Dramatized play of court of Old King Neptune aboard ship Saint Clara in Lima, Peru. Governor Landon delegates to the Pan-American party at Lima. Court members and King Neptune during the court. Spectators watch the event. Correspondents throw most of the courtiers into water.
U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull leads the U.S. delegation to the 8th International Pan-American Conference in Lima, Peru. The U.S. delegation arrives in Lima by ship. The delegates are received by Peruvian dignitaries and local crowds. Secretary Hull is greeted by the Peruvian dignitaries. Other delegates disembark the ship and greet the crowd. Little Peruvian girls with flowers welcome the delegation. The Pan-American Conference venue. Flags of the participating nations. Delegates and dignitaries arrive for the Conference. The delegates seated inside. Secretary hull opens the conference with a military speech warning dictator states abroad that the U.S. is willing and able to safeguard the Western Hemisphere.
Space research from the ground with a Scatter Radar. Scientists outside the Instituto Geofisico Del Peru, scientific research organization of the Peruvian government. A train on its way to the Institute's observatory. It travels through the Rimac Valley in the Andes, including Ticlio at nearly 16,000 feet. Llama graze and move about high up in the mountains. Huancayo (Wankayu) Village: Local Quechuan Indians trade in the weekly market. Shops in the street, street vendors with their goods. The Jicamarca Observatory, new National Bureau of Standards facility near Lima. Scientists work at scopes and other instruments. Aerial view of the Peruvian coastline. The valley 17 miles from Lima. Rocks on the arid coast. Green vegetable fields and broad flat plane in the arid valley. The site for the antenna. Bulldozers prepare the site for construction. A diversion dam constructed on the site. Gully in the valley floor. Peruvian workers lay wire to sound an alarm in case a mudflow should come. Men mark ground and align places for post holes, lay wood posts to support the antenna dipole. They assemble inserts, connect the antenna, and lay bricks. The workers collect their pay. Bureau of National Standards staff and their families in Chaclacayo community. The families gather with locals for a Anticuchos barbecue (Peruvian beef kabobs). The wives of the U.S. scientists shop for fruits and vegetables in the local market.
Space research from the ground with a Scatter Radar. Completed construction at the Jicamarca Observatory near Lima, Peru. Hills in the background. Engineers and technicians inside the Observatory. Local Peruvians with technical skills are trained in class. A technician inspects the Observatory transformers. Men make final wiring check in the Condenser Bank. Two men work on an amplifier in the Amplifier Room. Technicians work at pumps and heat exchangers for the water purification and cooling system. Men work with blowers that circulate cool air throughout passage ways in tunnels. Cables and piping in the tunnels. Scientists direct transmitter energy into the antenna. They monitor every function of the operation. Coaxial aluminum piping conducts transmitted and received radio signals through a spark gap and mixer. A man operates the system outside. Energy for the radio signals flows through coaxial piping in trenches. Dipoles in a modular section of the antenna to probe the upper atmosphere in order to measure electron densities. Open wire lines connect two rows of elements. Dr. Kenneth Bowles conducts scientific observation in the Screen Room. He measures the electron density with a transmitter, holds a record of the trace of electron densities. Electron density observations on a monitor. Antenna at the Observatory, hills in the background. A globe rotates.